The aim of this article is to describe the structural complexity of the tractor. The following discussion will include examples of each type of tractor: the basic types of tractor, the modular tractor, the tractor with a driving engine, and the tractor with a power-driven engine. The discussion will include the main structural elements: the frame, the axle, the frame-axle assembly, the wheels, the axle-wheels assembly, the transmission, the suspension, the engine, and the engine-wheels assembly.
Tractors are the most common machine in the world. They are used for a wide variety of tasks, from carrying coal to moving people or goods, to digging and hoisting the earth. It is not surprising that mechanical tractors have inspired the invention of many other devices, including the steam engine and the bicycle.
The speed of a tractor or a machine is determined by the speed of the driver. A small change in the speed of the tractor or a change in the driver’s load will have a large effect. The driver must be able to control the speed of the tractor or machine at all times!
A tractor produced by the Algerian Serta.
A tractor (plural: tractors) is a machine with a high-powered engine, equipped with wheels or chains, to perform agricultural tasks. Since most of the work he does is to pull either for plows or large machines, it is called a tractor.
Examples of his tasks:
Towing trailers and agricultural machinery such as plows, fertilizer spreaders, pesticide sprayers, or other equipment.
Carry attachments or mounted equipment either in the front of the tractor (such as a fork, hydraulic shovel), or more often from the back (such as ploughs, rotary harrows, crushing machines, etc.).
1 general form
2 used farm tractors in the world
3 Tractor industry in the Arab world
4 photo gallery
5 see also
7 external links
Agricultural tractor Renault D22 de 1957.
The tractor has at least four wheels, the two rear wheels are propulsion (rear wheel drive), and they are large in diameter compared to the two front wheels that guide the tractor’s belt. There are also tractors that use four-wheel drive, which can improve the tractor’s ability to tow but make the tractor consume more energy, and more powerful tractors are only sold with four-wheel drive, with the possibility of adding double wheels. This is for tractors with rubber tires (Pneumatiques). As for chain-track tractors (Chenille), their stability on critical floors is better than their predecessors, but they are negative in terms of the limited environment of their use, which does not exceed the rural environment and outside the prepared roads due to the damage of the tracks on them and the inability of inter-transfers far away. As for wheeled tractors, which consist of iron frames, they have disappeared and are no longer manufactured.
Since the end of the eighties, electronics began to take an important place in the tractor industry so that it can be used in many things, such as alerting the driver of the distances in which he is working, and the internal computer has become alerting you to problems and malfunctions that occur on the control panel of the tractor.
There are usually three pedals, such as a car, the left clutch, the middle brake, and the right gas pedal. The accelerator pedal is often associated with a driver-operated manual lever to stabilize the engine’s rotation at a constant speed in some field work. There are some specialized models (such as narrow tractors (orange orchards), agricultural tractors thrust into viticulture…). Tractors also differ in terms of the power of their engines, which range from 25 horsepower to 150 and more. Most tractors use manual transmissions, a variable speed (fast, slow) assortment, and gearboxes that enable slow, steady speeds, and help with some farm work. Compared to other vehicles, the tractor is a bit slow, up to 40 km/h on the road. In modern agricultural tractors, manual transmission has been dispensed with by powershift transmission, and in the last ten years by continuous transmission.
The tractor is generally a multi-use machine, but the tractor is often exposed to competition from machines designed for a specific work (such as the harvester, the self-spraying machine…). The tasks of the tractor in agricultural work are three: Traction: for ploughs and harrows, soil leveling equipment, preparation of the seed cradle, etc. Lifting: It is at the level of the rear triple anchor points consisting of the hydraulic arms and the upper anchor. Supplying the gear with energy: It is through the rear drive shaft (Prise force), which is connected with the gear that needs to be moved by an articulated shaft (Cardan), such as the pesticide pump and manure spreaders.
Use of agricultural tractors in the world
The total number of agricultural tractors, of all types, operating in the world reached 26.7 million (source of statistics FAO, 2002). Depending on the country in question, the type of agricultural tractor used widely can vary. Hence, compared to Western Europe, Japan uses less powerful tractors, while the Americans use more powerful tractors. Developing countries (India, for example) when producing tractors used under license by Europeans in 70 years.
The main users of about 70% of the total:
United States: 4,800,000
The tractor industry in the Arab world
Some Arab countries have settled this industry in cooperation with European and Russian companies. He established a factory for agricultural tractors in Aleppo, Syria, in cooperation with the Spanish company Ibero, with a production capacity of 2000 to 4000 tractors annually. A cooperation was also established between Iraq and the Czech Zetor Company to establish the Alexandria Tractors and Agricultural Machinery Factory, with a productivity ranging from 2000 to 7000 agricultural tractors. Egypt cooperated with the Romanian company and Universal and the Yugoslav company IMR to establish the Nasr Company for the Automotive Industry, with a production capacity of 2000 to 4000 tractors annually. The Sudanese Giad Industrial Group has cooperated with some giant companies in the field of tractors, such as Massey Ferguson Company, and many types of tractors are produced in Sudan, as agriculture in Sudan is the backbone of the economy. The German company Deutz also cooperated with Algeria to establish the National Company for the production of agricultural equipment, in addition to some assembly centers in Jordan, Libya, Morocco and Somalia.