acupuncture medecine traditionnel

acupuncture

acupuncture
A needle is inserted into a person’s arm
alternative medicine
healthsuggestion
MeSHD015670
ICD-999.91 – 99.92
OPS-301 code8-975.2 _
Acupuncture

Acupuncture is a type of alternative medicine 1] , and one of the methods of traditional Chinese medicine . Acupuncture is not based on unscientific information. [2] Acupressure is a pseudoscience . [3] [4] There are a variety of theories related to acupuncture, depending on the philosophies that look at the subject. Acupuncture techniques also vary by country. It is used to relieve pain by inserting needles into certain areas of the body. Chinese philosophy says that acupuncture affects a person’s life force and energy channelsthat circulate in the body. The lancet inserts the needle into the canal areas and painful places in the body. The scientific conclusion of many researches, studies and practical experiences that dealt with the subject of acupuncture are conflicting and inconsistent to a large extent. [5] [6] In a Cochrane study , acupuncture was found to be an ineffective method for treating many diseases. It may have a role in the treatment of vomiting related to cancer chemotherapy drugs, postoperative vomiting or chronic headaches. [6] A systematic review found that acupuncture has a very minor role in treating pain. Evidence also suggests that there is no long-term effect of acupuncture treatment. Some scholars attribute the slight effect to the concept of suggestive therapy . [5]

The results of many trials and systematic reviews of acupuncture are inconsistent, indicating that it is not effective. An overview of Cochrane reviews found the ineffectiveness of acupuncture in a wide range of conditions. A systematic review by medical scientists at the Universities of Exeter and Plymouth found little evidence of acupuncture’s effectiveness in treating pain. Overall, the evidence suggests that short-term acupuncture does not produce long-term benefits. Some research findings suggest that acupuncture can relieve some forms of back pain, although most research indicates that there are no clear effects of acupuncture on the treatment itself. A systematic review concluded that the analgesic effect of acupuncture appears to lack clinical significance and is clearly indistinguishable from bias.

Acupuncture

Acupuncture is generally safe when practiced by appropriately trained practitioners using a clean, disposable needle. When applied properly, it has a low rate of side effects. Accidents or injuries usually do not occur, and accidents are often associated with practitioner negligence, particularly when aseptic techniques are applied. The review conducted in 2013 stated that transmission reports had increased significantly in the previous decade. The most frequently reported adverse events were pneumothorax and infections. As long as serious adverse events to be reported persist, it is recommended that acupuncturist practitioners be adequately trained in order to reduce these risks. 

Scientific research has found no histological or physiological evidence for traditional Chinese concepts such as the concept of qi, the concept of meridians and acupuncture points, and many modern practitioners no longer rely on the existence of life force energy (qi) or meridians, which was a major part of earlier systems and claims. . Acupuncture is believed to have originated in China around 100 BC, around the time of the publication of the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine (Huangdi Neijin), although some experts have suggested that it may have been practiced earlier. Over time, conflicting claims and beliefs have emerged about the influence of the lunar cycles – heavenly and earthly – yin and yang energies, and the “rhythm of the body” on the effectiveness of treatment. [8]The popularity of acupuncture in China has fluctuated due to changes in the country’s political leadership and a preference for the use of rationalism, or Western medicine. Acupuncture first spread in Korea in the sixth century AD, then in Japan by medical expeditions, and then to Europe , starting with France , in the twentieth century, and also spread to the United States and Western countries, and the spiritual elements of acupuncture conflicting with beliefs were abandoned Sometimes Western acupuncture was simply used on acupoints (as a medical technique without spiritual connotations). [9] [10]

Contents

The nature of Chinese needles [ edit ]

Chinese needles  : They are very thin needles that are inserted into specific places of the body with the aim of treating or preventing some diseases.

A type of Chinese acupuncture needle

Acupuncture  is the Chinese practice of penetrating specific areas of the body along peripheral nerves using fine needles for pain relief, surgical anesthesia, and for therapeutic purposes.

According to Chinese philosophy, it is believed that needles restore balance in the body, and that energy (in Chinese “qi”) runs in multiple different paths in the body. Of these paths, and in the beginning there were about 365 separate points in the body for insertion of needles, but the number of these points increased greatly with the development of treatment. Despite this, many histological and functional studies were conducted for these points, and nothing was found to distinguish these points.

According to TCM theory, acupuncture points are located on the lines of energy, qi, vital energy, and flow. But there is no basis in anatomy or histology for acupuncture sites or power lines. [11] Recent literature also indicates that acupuncture sites are merely useful suggestions in clinical practice. [12] According to the NIH statement, consensus is that it is difficult to reconcile traditional Chinese medical concepts with contemporary medical knowledge. But it still plays an important role in evaluating patients and formulating the foundations of acupuncture therapy.

The oldest available text on acupuncture is (The Law of Internal Diseases of the Yellow Emperor), which indicates that acupuncture originated in China, and we will explain why it is related to traditional Chinese medicine. [13] There are different ways of taking needles that are practiced and studied all over the world such as: traditional Chinese, Japanese, Tibetan, Vietnamese and Korean.

History of acupuncture [ edit ]

Illustration of acupuncture from Hua Shui (fl. 1340s, Ming Dynasty). This image is from Shi Si Jing Fa Hui (Term of the Fourteen Power Lines) (Tokyo: Suharaya Heisuke kanko, Kyoho gan, Kyoho 1716).

Chinese needles are one of the practices of ancient Chinese medicine that originated and developed over thousands of years and was used in the past using sharp stones, which were implanted in the body to have a specific effect . It is usually made of stainless steel.

antiquity [ edit ]

Acupuncture in China dates back to the Stone Age. Archaeologists in Inner Mongolia found sharp stone needles dating back to around 3000 BC. [14] [15] The clearest evidence dates back to the first millennium BC, where the archaeological evidence that was found dates back to the era of Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD). need source ]

Recent tests conducted on Otzi ‘s mummy , which was found in the Alps and is 5,000 years old, revealed more than fifty tattoos drawn on her body, some of which are located in acupuncture sites that are used today to treat some diseases. Some scholars believe this is evidence that there were practices similar to acupuncture that were practiced elsewhere in Eurasia in the early Bronze Age. According to Dorfer’s article in The Lancet , he said: “We suppose a similar medical system to acupuncture (acupuncture and moxibustion) was practiced in Central Europe before 5200. A similar method of acupuncture appears to have been in use long before the period when It was known in traditional medicine in ancient China.This raises the possibility that acupuncture originated in Eurasia at least 2,000 years earlier than we thought. [16] [17]

It is not certain that acupuncture originated in China. The first reference to the use of this technique is in the oldest Chinese medical text, the Classics of Internal Medicine of the Yellow Emperor, compiled between 305-204 BC. However, Chinese medical texts dating back to 68 BC) do not mention acupuncture. Some hieroglyphic texts dating back to 1000 BC were also found, indicating the use of acupuncture. In ancient times, bayan stones were used, which are sharp rocks used in the treatment of diseases, some of which were discovered among the relics. Some scholars believe it was used to drain blood by methods similar to acupuncture techniques. [18]

One legend, [19] says that acupuncture began in China when some soldiers who were wounded in battle were struck by arrows and then felt pain relief in other parts of the body. Thus people began to experiment with the use of arrows (and later needles) in therapy.

Middle Ages [ edit ]

Acupuncture has spread from China to Korea , Japan , Vietnam and other areas in East Asia . The Portuguese missionaries were the first to know acupuncture in the West, and that was in the sixth century. [20]

Modern era [ edit ]

In the 1970s, acupuncture was introduced in the United States after a New York Times article written by Reston, who underwent an emergency appendectomy while visiting China. Normal anesthesia was used during the surgery, while acupuncture was used to treat postoperative pain. [21] The National Acupuncture Association was the first national acupuncture association in the United States. She was the first to introduce it to the West through research and seminars. The National Acupuncture Association established and staffed the Acupuncture Pain Clinic at UCLA in 1972. This was the first formal clinic in a medical college in the United States. citation needed ] It is said that the first acupuncture clinic in the United States was opened by Dr. Yao Wu Li in Washington, on July 9, 1972. [22] [Is the source reliable? ] The US Internal Revenue Service designated acupuncture treatment as medical expenses starting in 1973. [23]

Clinical practice [ edit ]

A painting showing the places of Chinese acupuncture from 

the Ming Dynasty

Contemporary acupuncturists use single-use stainless steel micro-needles, 0.007 to 0.020 inches (0.18 to 0.51 mm) and sterilized with ethylene oxide or a sterilizer. These needles are much smaller in diameter (and therefore less painful) than hypodermic needles because they do not have to be hollow for injection purposes. The top third of these needles are thick wire (usually bronze), or covered with plastic, to strengthen the needles and allow the clinician to grip them as they are inserted. The size and type of needle used, and the depth of insertion, will depend on the technique used by the specialist.

Therapy by heating the acupuncture point, usually by (burning a variety of herbs, often tansy), differs from acupuncture and is used often, but not exclusively, as a complementary treatment. The Chinese term, zhen jiu, usually refers to acupuncture, and consists of zen (needle) and jiu (ki). Moxibustion is now used to varying degrees in oriental medical schools. For example, in one well-known method, the needle is inserted into the acupoint. With needles, then attach its outer end to the dried moxa herb, then ignite it.Then the herb begins to burn without flame for several minutes (depending on the amount of grass), then the needle delivers heat to the tissues surrounding the needle in the patient’s body.There is another common technique by placing a sleeve From a glowing moxa stick on top of the needles, moxa is sometimes burned to the surface of the skin, after applying an ointment to protect the skin from the burn, although skin burning is a common practice in China.Main article: 

Chinese medicine

Pain control gate theory [ edit ]

The “Pain Control Gate Theory” (Developed by Ronald Melzak and Patrick Wall, 1962) and in 1965 they proposed that pain is not merely a direct result of the activation of pain fibers, but results from the interaction between excitation and suppression of pain pathways. According to the theory, pain is controlled by inhibiting pain pathways. Accordingly, the perception of pain can be changed (feeling it or not feeling it) by a number of means, physiologically, psychologically and medically. The gate-control theory was based on the neuroscience of acupuncture, which was later considered a mechanism to clarify the hypotheses of the analysis of the action of acupuncture in the brainstem, forming the brainstem network. which was done by a German neurologist in 1976. [24]

This leads to the theory of central pain gate control, i.e. limiting pain within the brain (not in the spinal cord or its surroundings) by the release of opiates (natural pain relievers produced by the brain) and neurohormones such as endorphins and enkephalins (which naturally produce morphine). ).

Neurohormonal theory [ edit ]

The modern model of acupuncture.

Pain transmitters can adapt to many other levels in the brain along pain pathways, including the gray cortex, thalamus, and feedback pathways from the cerebral cortex to the thalamus. Restriction of pain to these parts of the brain is often mediated by neurohormones, especially those that bind to opioid receptors (the site of pain suppression).

Some studies suggest that the analgesic effect of acupuncture is related to the release of natural endorphins in the brain. This can be inferred by blocking the action of endorphins (or morphine) with a drug called naloxone. When a patient takes naloxone, the analgesic effect of morphine is inhibited, causing the patient to feel pain again. When naloxone is given to an acupuncture patient, it can also counteract the analgesic effect of the needles, increasing the patient’s pain. [25] [26] [27] [28] It should be noted that studies using similar conditions, including ingestion of naloxone, demonstrated a role for endogenous opioids in the placebo effect, demonstrating that this response is not exclusive to acupuncture. [29]

A study conducted on monkeys by recording neural activity directly in the thalamus of the brain indicated that the analgesic effect of acupuncture lasted more than an hour. In addition, there is significant overlap between the nervous system and the acupuncture points (very thin points) in NFS. [30]

Evidence suggests that the analgesic effect of acupuncture involves the thalamus and is demonstrated using fMRI images, positron emission tomography, and brain imaging techniques [31] , and via feedback pathways from the cerebral cortex using electrofunctional recording devices to directly record nerve impulses in neurons in the cortex. , which show an inhibitory effect during acupuncture. [32] The effect was similar in the placebo response. A study showed that using fMRI images, the placebo effect was associated with decreased activity of the thalamus, and the anterior insula cingulate cortex. [33]

More recently, acupuncture has been shown to increase nitric oxide in the areas being treated, which leads to increased local circulation. [34] [35] Studies have also been conducted on infections and localized anemia as well. [36]

Recent findings by scholars in this field [ edit ]

Several hypotheses have been proposed to define the physiological mechanisms of acupuncture. [37]

Issues in study design [ edit ]

One of the major challenges to acupuncture research is the design of an appropriate dummy control group. [38] When testing new drugs, a double-blind system is the accepted criterion, but since acupuncture is a procedure rather than a pill, it is difficult to design a study that applies to both the acupuncturist and the patient based on this criterion. The same problem arises with double-blind trials used in biomedicine, including all surgical, dental, and physical therapy procedures. [39]

Blinding is still a challenge for the acupuncturist. One of the proposed solutions for applying blinding to the patient is the development of “phantom acupuncture”, that is, the acupuncture is superficial or in places other than acupuncture. There is still controversy about whether placebo acupuncture constitutes a valid placebo, and what are the conditions for it. Particularly in pain studies, inserting needles anywhere near the site of pain may produce beneficial results

In a 2004 study of 570 patients with osteoarthritis, the average pain experienced by people receiving acupressure according to the Womack Scale decreased to 40% after 14 weeks; For placebo acupuncture, it was only 30 percent, and for those who only received guidance about their condition, it was 22 percent. [40]

In a controlled study conducted on 300 patients with migraine headaches in 2005, it was reported that acupuncture in acupuncture and non-acupuncture sites led to an improvement compared to patients who were still on the waiting list, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. [41]

Another study by Ted Kaptcock et al., conducted on 270 patients with arm pain, in 2006, showed that placebo acupuncture had a stronger effect on pain than tablets, and the study concluded: “The placebo effect appears to be more flexible and depends on how it is used by medical methods. “. [42]

In a Mayo Clinic study, 103 postmenopausal women between the ages of 45 and 59; They said they felt hot flashes at least five times a day and did not use any other treatments. Half were randomly assigned to receive a standardized series of acupuncture treatments. Those who were treated with real acupuncture, had needles placed in the same places in the arms, legs and lower abdomen, while the other half received dummy treatments, where the needles were used superficially near the same places but away from the so-called pressure points. Only researchers know who is receiving the actual treatment, but the women don’t. After six weeks, there was no difference between the two groups. Where 61 percent of the placebo group still experienced hot flashes, while 62 percent of the actual treatment group still experienced hot flashes as well. [43]

In an analysis of 13 studies conducted on pain acupuncture treatment, which was published in January 2009 in the journal BMJ, it was found that the differences are small between the effect of actual and placebo acupuncture and not using needles either. [40] [44]

In a study by H.H., Moft, he found that the effect of acupuncture is more than just a placebo effect, but that acupuncture is not just a placebo effect. “Thus, the traditional theories that identify specific points and stimulation techniques to distinguish actual from delusional are unreliable and do not yield results.” [45]

Medical evidence [ edit ]

There is general agreement that work must be done within the framework of clinical evidence to assess health outcomes and that regular reviews with strict protocols are essential. Therefore organizations such as The Cochrane Collaboration and Bandolier are publishing these reviews. Practically speaking, “the clinical evidence aims to integrate individual experiences and produce the best evidence”, but this does not require clinicians to ignore other research. [46]

Researcher Ernest Edzard and colleagues summarized the development of acupuncture rules through a 2007 review. They compared regular reviews (with similar methodology) in 2000 and 2005:The efficacy of acupuncture remains controversial…. The results indicate that evidence is greater for 13 of the 26 conditions included in this comparison. There are 7 indicators that it has become more positive (ie in favor of acupuncture) and 6 indicators that it has changed in the opposite direction. The research concluded that acupuncture research is active. Clear evidence implies that acupuncture is an effective treatment for some, but not all, conditions. [47]

Regarding low back pain, the Cochrane review (2005) states that:This systematic review included 35 randomized trials covering 2861 patients. There is not enough evidence to recommend acupuncture or dry needling to treat acute low back pain. As for chronic low back pain, results show that acupuncture is more effective for pain relief than no treatment or placebo, in measurements up to three months. The results also show that acupuncture is more effective in improving chronic low back pain, in the short term. Acupuncture is no more effective than traditional and “alternative” treatments. When acupuncture is added to conventional treatments, it relieves pain and improves function better than using conventional treatments alone. However, its effectiveness is still minimal. Dry needles appear to be helpful in helping other treatments to relieve chronic lower back pain. [48]

A review by Mannheimer et al. in the Archives of Internal Medicine (2005) reached similar conclusions as the Cochrane review of low back pain. [49] The review of the American Pain Society/American College of Physicians found fair evidence that acupuncture is effective for chronic low back pain. [50]

A 2008 review suggests that combining acupuncture with traditional treatments for infertility such as IVF may significantly improve the success rates of such medical interventions. [51]

For Nausea and Vomiting: In a Cochrane review (Li and Don, 2006) regarding the use of pressure point stimulation to reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting, it was concluded that pressure point stimulation could reduce postoperative risks of nausea and vomiting with minimal side effects, Although its effectiveness is less than or equal to that of protective drugs. [52] [53] Cochrane also said: “Electro-acupuncture therapy is effective on the first day of vomiting after chemotherapy, but trials have shown that modern anti-vomiting drugs are needed.” [54]

A 2007 review of Cochrane’s regarding the use of acupuncture to treat neck pain:There is moderate evidence that acupuncture relieves pain better than some placebo treatments, as measured at the end of treatment. There is moderate evidence that those receiving acupuncture experienced less pain after a short time better than those on the waiting list. There is also moderate evidence that acupuncture is more effective than inactive treatments for post-treatment pain relief, during a short follow-up time. [55]

Headache, Cochrane (2006) concluded: “In spite of all this, the existing evidence supports the efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of idiopathic headache. However, the quality and quantity of the evidence is not completely convincing. There is an urgent need for a large-scale scheme and studies to evaluate Efficacy and cost of acupuncture under realistic conditions.” [56]

Several trials have indicated that migraine patients benefit from acupuncture, although the correct locations for the needles do not seem to exactly match what acupuncturists believe. [57]

For osteoarthritis, reviews since 2006 have shown a slight difference between real and dummy acupuncture. [58] [59]

Fibromyalgia. A systematic review of the 5 best available randomized controlled trials showed mixed results. [60] Three positive studies, all using electroacupuncture, showed short-term results. The qualitative methodology of the five trials was overlapping, and low.

For the following cases, the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that there is insufficient evidence to determine whether acupuncture is beneficial, due to the paucity and poor quality of research, and that further research is needed:

Chronic asthma [61]Bell’s palsyCocaine dependence (acupuncture in the ear) [62]depression [63]Primary dysmenorrhea (acupuncture plus transcutaneous electrical stimulation) [64]epilepsy [65]Glaucomainsomnia [66]Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome [67]Stimulation of labor [68]Arthritis [69]shoulder painSchizophrenia [70]smoking cessation [71]acute strokeStroke rehabilitation [72]Elbow pain (lateral elbow pain) [73]Vascular dementia [74]


Some studies on the effectiveness of acupuncture have shown positive results, which may be due to a lack of study design or a lack of publication. [75] [76]

Evidence from neuroimaging studies [ edit ]

Acupuncture appears to affect cortical activity, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans. In a 2005 review of the literature, neuroimaging data to date showed promise for the ability to distinguish between expected, actual and phantom effects of acupuncture. . Most of these studies are small and associated with pain, so more research is needed to determine the activating properties of neurotransmitters for nonpainful cues.

NIH statement [ edit ]

In 1997, the United States Department of Health and Human Services of the National Institutes of Health issued a statement regarding acupuncture, concluding that acupuncture is safe compared to some other medical treatments. They stated that the decision to use it in medical practice depends on several factors, including “the patient’s condition, experience, potential for harm, and information from colleagues and specialists.” This statement is not the policy followed by the institution, but rather the assessment of the committee convened by the institution.

Wallace Sampson criticized this statement as well as the conference in which it was announced, Sampson writes for a Quak Watch publisher. The report lacks scientific evidence. [77]

The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Institutes of Health continues to adhere to the statement issued by the institution,

WHO statement [ edit ]

In 2003, the Department of Essential Drugs and Medicine of the World Health Organization published a report listing a list of diseases and symptoms for which acupuncture has been shown to be effective as follows: [78]

  • Acute organic dysentery
  • Adverse effects of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy
  • allergic rhinitis
  • Biliary colic
  • Depressive disorders
  • Primary hypertension
  • headache
  • Birth and fetal correction
  • Inflammation of the tissue surrounding the shoulder
  • White blood cell deficiency
  • Nausea and vomiting, including morning sickness
  • Epigastric pain in the stomach, face and neck, elbow tendons, lower back and knee, during dental treatment, and after operations.
  • Primary menstrual pain
  • Primary hypotension
  • Renal colic
  • arthritis
  • sciatica
  • joint sprain
  • brain attack

The report also listed other conditions for which acupuncture may be effective.

As explained by the World Health Organization, the objective of this report:“In order to promote the appropriate use of acupuncture in Member States where acupuncture is not widely used, this document contains a summary of everything relevant to the assessment of acupuncture practice. It also includes the medical conditions associated with this data. It must be emphasized that the diseases The symptoms and conditions covered in this report were collected from trials, so they can be used as a reference. Only national health authorities can identify diseases, symptoms and conditions for which acupuncture is recommended.”

This report was controversial; Where opponents say that this report came from supporters of this practice within the World Health Organization. A number of scientists have also expressed concern that the evidence in support of acupuncture is weak, and that the World Health Organization is biased towards involving alternative medicine practitioners.

Safety and risks [ edit ]

Because acupuncture penetrates the skin, it is not without risks. But injuries are rare among patients treated by trained practitioners. [79] [80] In most jurisdictions, needles are required by law to be sterile, use only once, and must be disposed of after use. In some places, needles can be reused if they are re-sterilized using a sterilizer, for example.

There are many Japanese acupuncture techniques in which needles never penetrate the skin. In these cases, needles are used on the skin, but they do not penetrate it, and other tools are used to tap the skin in the places where the energy lines are. Notable examples of these styles are Toyohari, and Shunshin

General minor drawbacks [ edit ]

A survey was conducted in Japan on 55,291 cases treated with acupuncture during more than five years, these treatments were taken by 73 acupuncturists, 99.8% of them completed the treatment without minor or significant negative effects. Two studies conducted in Britain revealed 66,229 cases treated with acupuncture, with only 134 minor adverse effects. [81] A total of 121.520 cases treated with acupuncture did not result in primary adverse effects (except for one case representing 0.0008%). A study by Ernst et al. , including more than 400 patients who received over 3,500 acupuncture treatments, found that the most common adverse effects of acupuncture were:

  • Minor bleeding after needle removal, in approximately 3% of patients. (But using a cotton swab for about one minute is usually enough to stop the bleeding.)
  • Hematoma, in about 2% of patients, appears as bruising. This usually goes away after a few days.
  • Vertigo, in about 1% of patients. Some patients are conscious and some lose consciousness due to fear of needles as well as some other symptoms associated with anxiety. The patient is usually in a lying position during the treatment to avoid the possibility of fainting.

The study concluded that: “Acupuncture has negative effects, just like any other treatment. But if used according to safety rules and carefully in appropriate anatomical areas, it is safe.”

Other injuries [ edit ]

Other risks from needle sticks include the following:

  • Nerve injury resulting from accidental pricking of any nerve.
  • Brain damage or stroke, which can be caused by pricking deep into the base of the skull.
  • Pneumothorax, caused by a needle sticking deep into the lung. [82]
  • Kidney damage as a result of tingling in the lower back.
  • Perforation of the diaphragm of the heart, may occur with acupuncture over an opening in the breastbone caused by a congenital defect. [83]
  • The risk of miscarriage of pregnancy with the use of certain acupuncture points that stimulate the production of the hormone adrenocorticotropin or the hormone oxytocin.
  • The use of non-sterile needles leads to the transmission of infectious diseases.

The chances of these risks occurring are very small; It can be avoided by appropriate training of acupuncturists. Graduates of medical schools (USA), and graduates of accredited schools of acupuncture receive training in appropriate techniques to avoid these events. (See, Spasm, 1987)

Risks of dispensing with traditional medical care [ edit ]

Replacing Western medicine therapies with alternative medicine can lead to insufficient diagnosis or treatment of some cases in which Western medicine has demonstrated better efficacy. For this reason, many doctors and acupuncturists prefer to consider acupuncture as a complementary treatment rather than an alternative treatment.

The researchers expressed concern that the naivety or unethical behavior of some practitioners might prompt them to urge patients to spend on ineffective treatments. [84] [85] That is why some public health authorities have organized the practice of acupuncture. [86] [87] [88]

How safe this treatment is compared to other treatments [ edit ]

Commenting on the safety of acupuncture compared to other treatments, the National Institutes of Health said the side effects of acupuncture are very low compared to conventional treatments. She also stated:“Its adverse effects are much less than many drugs or other medical procedures used for the same conditions. For example, conditions of the musculoskeletal system, such as: fibromyalgia, fascial myalgia, elbow tendon pain… Acupuncture is helpful in treating these painful conditions, usually with other treatments, such as anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen, etc.) or with steroid injections Both medical treatments have harmful side effects, but they are still widely used It is broad and considered one of the accepted methods of treatment.

Legal and political situation [ edit ]

Acupuncture specialists either use herbal medicine or massage, or they are doctors, who, in addition to their specialization in medicine, practice acupuncture in a simplified form. In most states, physicians are not required to have formal training in acupuncture. But more than 20 countries allow chiropractors to practice acupuncture after training less than 200 hours. Acupuncturists typically receive more than 3,000 hours of medical training. Obtaining a license is from the state or provinces and requires passing an exam.

In the United States, acupuncture is practiced by a variety of health care providers. These specialists in acupuncture and oriental medicine are usually referred to as licensed acupuncturists. An acupuncture diploma indicates that its holder is accredited by the National Certification Committee for Acupuncture and Alternative Medicine. Specialized certificates are usually equivalent to a master’s degree.

In 2005, a survey showed that 59% of American physicians believe acupuncture is somewhat effective. [89] In 1996, the United States Food and Drug Administration moved needles as a medical device from Class III to Class II, meaning that needles are considered safe and effective when used appropriately by licensed practitioners. [90] [91] As of 2004, acupuncture was provided to nearly 50% of Americans enrolled in employee health insurance plans. [92] [93]

Canadian acupuncturists have been licensed in British Columbia, since 2003. In Ontario, the practice of acupuncture is now regulated by the TCM Act, 2006, Chapter 27. [94] The government is also establishing a college [95] to be tasked with Supervising the implementation of the policies and regulations related to the profession.

In the United Kingdom, the government has not yet intervened to regulate acupuncture.

In Australia, acupuncture laws differ from state to state. Victoria is the only state in Australia that has an Executive Board of Registration. [96] Currently acupuncturists in NSW comply with the Public Health (Penetration of the Skin) Regulations 2000, [97] which are implemented at the local council level. While some other states in Australia have their own dermal penetration laws.

Many other countries do not provide licenses for acupuncturists, but rather require them to undergo training

باب فضل قراءة القران الكريم

Average Rating

5 Star
0%
4 Star
0%
3 Star
0%
2 Star
0%
1 Star
0%

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.